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(Discussion on materials of the unit)
of Humanitarian Engineering
A fundamentally new direction of the
reforming of education, which brings it into correspondence with the public
processes, the world tendencies and the vital prospects. As the first step of
reforming the School of Humanitarian Engineering is projected.
The main ideas of reforming:
- representation of education not so much as the tool of a local (in a place and time) social policy, but as means of public development and of public significant problems solution; school not only as the mechanism of reproduction, but also mechanism of development of a society;
- moving of the centre of attention from pprocess of transfer of knowledge to the process of training of universal intellectual functions;
- expansion of a set of types of knowledgee and reorganization of an educational material around of activity, instead of around of a subject.
- The localness of reforming, which considder a variety of conditions and needs for education and providing safety of reforming the best.
Humanitarian Engineering are technologies of enrichment, multiplication of means of thinking and activity of the person. It is opposed with social engineering as to technologies of a manipulation by people
Within the Project framework solution have got such "eternal" problems of school, as definition of an age scale, motivation of teaching, "selection of necessary knowledge from the ocean " (what should teach to ), individualization and socialization etc.
As a first step of reforming the School Humanitarian Engineering is projected.
The process of projection is composed of two stages: Conceptual (strategic) and Working Design. This document is dedicated mainly to the first stage, so it discusses the following subjects: analysis of the situation, introduction of necessary concepts (such as the ideology of new education), consideration of its purpose and public functions, the requirements for content and organization of Working Design (which in its last stages is combined with the development of the activity of real SHE). Working Design begins after the presence of the necessary resources for performing of all work is revealed and confirmed.
The document is addressed to those, who can support this undertaking by resources, including specialists, ready to become part of initiative-taking group or to participate in the Working Design. The target of present publication is find such people and organizations.
This version original was prepared by Dr. A.Kazarnovsky (firstname.lastname@example.org) and by Prof. M.Rats (email@example.com), translated by U.Skomorovsky (firstname.lastname@example.org), and it is intended for the first acquaintance with the Project.
Israel - 2001
2. Posing of problems .
3. Modernization or development? Cultural and historical orientations of the Project.
4. Sources of requirements for the educational projects.
4.1. Cultural-historical situation.
4.2. Sociocultural situation.
5. Project Concept.
5.1. Why "Humanitarian Engineering"?
5.2. Why SHE in Israel?
5.3. Strategy of conversions.
6. Characteristics of the Project.
7. General plan of Working Design and its organization.
8.1. Problems of policy and sectoring (particularism).
8.2. Problems of mastery of activity.
8.3. Situation in the Israeli school.
8.5. Parts of the Working Design.
8.6. Sense of the Project within the framework of the school education reform.
At the end of 2000 -
beginning 2001 the subject of Israeli education was discussed in the press. One
of the theses proposed was to make Israeli education the best in the world,
causing a considerable increase in the export potential of the country .This
idea seems to us very attractive, especially due to the deprivation in Israel of
economic resources and the complicated situation in the region (whose solution
isn’t going to happen soon). We consider it, not only a key to the relevant
reforming of education, but also a way to develop of the country, so that Israel
would occupy an appropriate place in the system of world labor division. We
believe that realization of this idea is possible by changing the orientation of
education from a science oriented education into an activity oriented education.
Such education will make it possible not only to explore, but also to change
human world. Our concept of achieving it consists of the creation of the
precedent of this education - the Schools of Humanitarian Engineering.
We begin from the development of the conceptual project, which organizes the Working Design. We understand it clearly that the project will change during the realization of the concept, and that it will affect methods and results of the Working Design. For this reason, we do not describe the arrangement of SHE "from Scratch". The declaring such "ideal project" as a final objective would be a harmful utopia: it is the question of not the adaptation of known samples to the local conditions, but of the creation of the new sample of school. Instead we will draw a way towards SHE, by using the conceptual project as a vector, a working layout, which assigns the direction of developments, the method of motion. This forces us to conduct the work under a continuous reflexive control and to ensure the cognitive means of the operational modification of the project. In turn, this means that in the conceptualization, the organization and the performance of the project, the methodological aspect appears (not only the technical aspect). This methodology [ 2 ] is developed almost half a century by a school of G.P.Shchedrovitsky and appears today (in many places around the world) as the most effective version of methodologies.
Last time in USA, Russia, Israel, European countries and others, as well as in UN related organizations, an increasing number of practitioners and public workers come to the conclusion that there is a need to reform the education system. What such like-mindedness is caused by? It is especially surprising if we take into account the significant differences in public education systems among those countries. We believe that it is due to three very important and tightly interrelated tendencies of contemporary world.
One of them is widely known by the name of globalization, although more precisely it should be divided into pare of tendencies: civilization globalization and cultural regionalization. The second tendency does not have this bright sign, but is discussed usually as the acceleration of changes. The third, on the contrary, is known predominantly in its local manifestation and "converted" forms (informatization, growth of the role of knowledge, the human capital, and so on). We consider that behind all these details stands the deepest tendency - intellectualizations of activity: an increase in role and diversification of "intellectual labor" in the majority of the existing systems of activity, and moreover in the forming of a new systems (For understanding of the aforesaid one should consider that the knowledge is a product and a converted form of the work of intellect). The intellectualization of activity designates at the same time a constant renovation, artification of itself and its products, artificial (mental) origin is playing an ever-larger role in the world. The development of global economy becomes dependent not on manufacture of the goods only, and from manufacture of innovations.
On the other hand, the system of education ruling in the world of European culture had been formed in its present form in the epoch of the formation of science and Enlightenment (XVII-XVIII centuries) and has the training process or the process of translating of knowledge as its base process (see 8.6. Sense of the Project within the framework of the school education reform).
1-2 hundred years ago this system worked very effectively: the knowledge obtained by people in the period of training became sufficient to them for all their life. In the recent decades the world gradually, but radically changed. Now even the young specialists encounter a deficiency in the knowledge obtained. In many spheres of activity becomes it necessary to renew the knowledge every couple of years. The idea of "disposable" knowledge, i.e. knowledge which are operationally formed, according to the situation, and utilized, when the necessity of them is passed, are extending . The nature of the knowledge changes: it is required from it to be "not eternally true ", but situationally efficient. As the school ignores this metamorphosis of knowledge and obstinately continues to emphasis "fundamental" knowledge, the public needs do not change, but the school becomes of inadequate to the new public function, brakes of public development ever more.
The scientific origin of our education is manifested in its subject organization and orientation to scientifically substantiated, and therefore the uniquely correct solutions (subject is understood as one of possible "cuts" or "projections" of the whole object; subject - basis of any specialty or scientific branch). The subject organization of education and the knowledge transmitted in this case deprives the students of an integral view on the processes and the objects of real world. Due to the fast increasing complexity of knowledge, the students lose capabilities for the goal-directed conversions of it. This effect is aggravated by the habit to look for scientifically valid solutions, even when there is a contradiction to the plurality of cultural and value orientations, characteristic for the contemporary society. As a result the capability to co-ordinate the different positions is losing: a political activity degenerates into a political intrigue, conflicts last to infinity and so forth (here and throughout the discussion deals not about the crisis of science, but with the crisis of the scientific type of thinking, when it exceeds the limits of its scope and becomes total).
Thus, the fundamental features of our system of education arrives in contradiction with the realities of contemporary world (we will examine this situation in detail below). From here follows the tendency of the communities (and even of state structures) of different countries to reform the national systems of education.
Nevertheless, it looks like as the concepts of the educational reforms don’t take into account directly the considerations we discussed above. The concepts are usually veiled, and frequently displaced by more pragmatic and simpler considerations. This is natural: the potential reformers are themselves products of the same, very unfit education system they want to change. Israel is not an exception: situation lies in the fact that our local problems completely replace in the consciousness of potential reformers the deep reasons for the necessary changes in the sphere of education. Therefore the content of the “fundamental concepts” or educations as a whole, the subject organization of knowledge and their partial nature, rigid structure of class-lessons system are not discussed at all. A similar narrowed regarding of a question deliberately causes the reforms to be like a cosmetic repair of the obsolete system.
In general education is thought as
double process: translations of culture and formation ("education") of human
person. The pedagogic provides this process with means and ways.
Two types of the frame requirements to the educational projects are possible, at least: basing on culture and outgoing from the analysis of contemporary  historical processes.
The bearing on culture is connected to representation that somewhere (in various countries, at various pedagogical schools) the norms, measurement standards and samples of «ideal» school education are existing and could be involved. "The Best Education" is understood as "assembly of the best in education", known for today. Orienting on these anyhow known samples is necessary to decide task of reforming of our education. In this case the pedagogic fall into a centre of attention: talk is about pedagogical methods, technologies, about pedagogical art. From that, apparently, it is necessary to determine, from what modes and how far we have lagged, and the problem of improvement of education is reduced to "refinement" and distribution of pedagogical methods and innovation pedagogical projects. It's clear what to undertake: it is necessary to acquaint with world samples, to transfer them to Israel, and also to intensify that activity, that teachers at schools are engaged in now, to do the same, but more and better, to increase "a level of knowledge" of the schoolboys. A Situation is comprehended in the forms of such thinking, when one is follow from other, including future is supposed to be a logical objective prolongation of the past. This methodology of public transformations is widely known under a name of modernization.
At a bearing on a history, the main sending (as it should be understandable from item 2) is that the today's education has ceased to correspond to public processes, world tendencies and vital outlooks, it does not prepare the people for the solution of modern vital problems. Then sense and the paths of reforming determine not known cultural samples and even not today's situation (as at orientation to culture), but future, desirable situation. I.e. the aim on the due which turns out not by a choice from a field of cash opportunities, as in modernization, and at the expense of expansion of a field, is realized. In the centre of attention the question on the contents of education  is put, and only in its frameworks probably intelligent discussion of pedagogical culture and pedagogical innovations.
And the maiden problem of reforming consists in definition as and what is necessary to think about this due, why it is valuable for us. But between current and future situations - anything is not present, any frames of intellection and operating, any new resources, gap. So that simply to refuse from maiden and directly to pass to second it is impossible. Firstly they are thought in opposition to each other, and exist only in a pair, as two poles. Only on a following step between them begins to be under construction some kind of «bridge»: a program of action on transfer of an existing situation in desirable. Programming - second problem of transformations. In the "cultural" approach these problems do not exist. Such way of transformations is called as development.
We receive the second approach and we see the purpose in executing the Project, resting not on known samples (though, certainly, taking them into account), but on actual historical processes and perspective zoetic problems. Here it is required to organize broad front of analytical, exploratory and design activities. For the first time for last 50 years it is necessary really to solve the problem on a place, assigning and contents of our education, including "the Jewish education", in modern Israel and world (in the rhetorical form it is annually asked at the eve to September 1: " What purposes of school and that she there teaches?").
The severe changes in our
life and the world indicate that the ontological representations about modern
world demand revision.
The general global tendency consists in transition from the industrial society to the society of diverse type conditionally called post-industrial. The paces of transition are those, that in developed countries, still it is not enough having understood that by itself represents post-industrial, already discuss a subject of the post-post-industrial society. It looks as if lose sense of representations about a new social order as certain terminal arrival station. This station does not any more exist , and we perceive, that we live in the world, intrinsic feature which one becomes continuous variations of a social order.
Not going into in-depth study of this unprecedented historical situation, we shall pay attention to its propulsion: appearance in all spheres of life of the public subjects, the intellectual power which one is commensurable to such traditional structures, as a community, locale, state. They originate new public processes at the expense of transformation of an intellectual potential into universal resource and control its usage. "A game of processes" as implementation "games of intelligence" sprang up. We are present at historical replacement of pictures of the world: "the world as the subject" succumbs a place to "the world as the process". The discrepancy of concepts and representations acquired by us from a past world to this world secure constant stay in a field of problems. Really, that in "world - process" mean customary words: "safety", "stability", "prosperity", "policy", "conflicting" and many other things, at last, "education", "training", "upbringing"? Same, as earlier, or behind them other essences are situated already ? Sense of this question - in necessity to change attitude to "concept": it already has removed from a sphere unloved by broad masses of philosophy in the practice and becomes a means of maintenance of effective operating. Probably therefore there is a growth of value not of things and of even not ways of their creation and use, not of the "know-how", but of intellection technologies, ways of organization and reorganization of activity, of a production of new knowledge, concepts and ideas, problems solving and a freshening our views on a world. Today and in a visible outlook welfare of the people, the nations and separate persons, capability of coexisting depend no more so much on possession of "labour", natural resources, means of both "know-how" and other material benefits, how much from capacity to accumulate and to use an intellectual potential.
From here - demand not only and not it is so much on the specialists in those or diverse domains of subject knowledge, not it is so much on "the aware people" (because it is possible to know only about that is or was), how much on "the thinking and perceiving people", capable to create new representations, ideas, cultural shapes of thought and operating indispensable for coexisting in dynamical and uncertain "world - process".
Other characteristic of the situation is the tendency to increase of cohesion and interrelationship of processes, systems, infrastructures which one determine a level and quality of our life - globalization. From here - essential "incidental", often long-time and not up to the end counted influencing as if local events on many other processes and a practice areas . In analysts lexicon the terms "butterfly's effect" and "domino's principle" expressing a complete sight on new realities have appeared. This circumstance with all sharpness puts forward a problem on the responsibility of the reformative subject and symmetrical to him of the adversarial subject, if he is present (usually subjects are collective, and our question concerns to each participant of body). We speak not about moral or legal, but about the historical responsibility.
The states, peoples and even large corporations taking the responsibility for the future, are compelled to take into account these circumstances and to arrange for a motivation and conditions of social and professional mobility. These directions of development become now in the centre of socio-cultural policy of the states. In the field of education first of all they require the answer to the question: to that to learn of a children, if it is not known, in which conditions they should live? Also it is not clear, what experience to transfer them: you see experience - not that other, as sheaf of the certain actions with the certain type of object and situation, which we have taken possession in the past of, but the situations and objects are updated with kaleidoscopic speed. The loss of clearness in this question simply means loss of freedom.
Such statement at once deduces for limits of methodology of regular thinking and "scientifically proved" forecasts and requires" to be ready to all". The constructive answer guesses changes in education systems: in the center of attention it is necessary to put formation of abilities to manufacture of indispensable knowledge - not only for adaptation to changes, but also for their creation, and if it is required, also oppositions to certain changes. This maiden and major requirement to the educational projects and programs. It is not necessary to perceive it, certainly, so, that the training, as such, is cancelled. The the matter concerns to combination of learning processes and education (formation of the human person), to such organization, at which one a certain fundamental knowledge is joint work of group of the pupils and teachers "here and now" conformably to this or that educational situation. "Fundamental" thus is became not naturally scientific knowledge about "objects" (physics, chemistry etc.), but reflexive knowledge of intellection and activity, about ways of obtaining, systematization and use of knowledge of a different type. Accordingly, base process of education becomes not customary transfer to the pupil of finished knowledge, but development of functions of intellect (look at the scheme 2 in the appendix 8.5. Parts of design engineering). Obviously, requirements to the teachers also change. Let's specify only one, but key, moment:: if until now sufficient was professional Self-determination in spaces of samples and Fundamental knowledge, now for teacher is necessary Experience of self-determination in space thought-activity.
The second demand is to form an indispensable condition of responsibility of the performance - capacity to perceive and to think whole, to construct whole and to operate by whole, within the framework of which one the changes are implemented. Differently, to arm the pupils by a ways of manufacture of knowledge not only about that "that is necessary" and "probably", but also about that "that is permissible" (safely on consequences) to do practically.
For an example we shall indicate only
two acute problems - are problems of the resolution of conflicts and problem of
In the first case the matter is about a deficit of means of the resolution of conflicts and formation of the society on a stuff of local communities (more detail see 8.1. Problems of policy and sectoring.). Therefore before the kernel system of education there is a problem to execute a function of consolidation of communities. A path of its solution - accenting of mastering of non-subject knowledge - about activity and intellection. This knowledge is equally necessary for different communities as thought tools of conducting dialogue for the sake of achievement of mutual understanding and public arrangements.
In the second case the graduates leave school with a deficit of knowledge and skills of an operation by activity, because of it their activity loses a practicality. In "world - process" habitual means of modernization (intensification of a digestion of knowledge, constant training for a new profession and so on) lose efficiency (see 8.2. Problems of mastering by activity). Obviously, the base school education should be such, that disappeared, let not completely, necessity in constant raising the level of one's qualification. That it was not necessary to pretend, as if by increase of "quantity" of education it is possible to compensate his low original quality - partial, incompleteness of a set of types of knowledge and absence of means of a production of new knowledge indispensable for construction of integrated activity and an operating by it.
— " —
At the same time, the today's mass school
is not that place, where the formulated above requirements to the educational
projects can be realized: its philosophy, the value reference points and
structure are incompatible to them. Are incompatible neither in the
objectively-ontological world-outlook plan, nor in plan of organization of the
pedagogical process (see 8.3. A situation at the Israeli school).
In Israel this situation one might as well to consider as the important
component of national safety.
Apparently, the transition to the doctrine of development in a sphere of education will be long and very not easy. Is certainly unreal to attempt suddenly to reform an existing national education system in such key. However beginning to this process is necessary and probably to put already now.
We do not claim to elaboration of the reform concept, but we confine the intentions with the project, which one nevertheless could be by a first step on the path of implementation of the doctrine of development. It is the Project " School of humanitarian engineering " (see 8.4. The basis and 8.6. Sense of the Project within the framework of school education reform).
In the highest degree the demands of section 4 are realized in the sphere of contemporary  engineering.
When we use the term “Engineering” we usually mean a purposeful artificial and technical transformation of all kinds of material objects, using scientific knowledge. But lately such a concept is being changed at the expense of denialing the materiality of objects and broadening the use of all types of knowledge we know.
Up to nova days the main object of engineering export into our life is series of the products of its activities. They surround us. However engineering is bringing about an expansion of a special type in all other areas of life and activity: in the last decades is registered a still tendency of seizure by engineering new bases at the expense of transferring them itself – ways and means to organize its own thinking and activity, its values and world views. Such are the characteristic features and processes of engineering - calculation, purposefulness, work in scheme and over scheme, planning, projecting, constructing and so on – do not look exotic in the most different spheres of activity; we speak about social engineers, about engineer approaches in psychology, linguistic, pedagogy, ecology, we speak about financial and political technologies and so on – all quite seriously and sensibly.
Everywhere where is built new activity or transformed the existing activity and arise a necessity to overcome non-standard situations – an engineer become the main active participant and his activity itself – new particular object. The working out of new educational programs, planning and putting into effect election campaigns, absorption of repatriates, regional and urban development, assimilation of new territories (Negev, Galilee), reforming of electoral system, conflict solutions and so on – at present all these wants engineer work, engineer approach . Engineering is turning into universal practice.
A human being was thought from time immemorial as a centaur-system in its way, a creature of two kinds, something artificially-naturally. In an analogous way can de presented the life of social system and the society as a whole. It is very important to mean that in engineering are combined “the natural” and “the artificial” in contradiction to natural sciences which deal with the first and technique which deal with the second one. But this is not enough. Modern engineering approach to transformation limit them not only in the framework of the “possible” (natural) and “wishable” (artificial), but also to be “obliged” or “permissible”, and that is not allowed to do in spite of possibility and wishability. The engineering approach allow to avoid irresponsible social experiments, taking into account only one of those extremes or being carried out disregarding “collateral” influences and the engineer education is called to arm people with methods and means of transformations not only objects of the material world but also the systems of activity and thinking which give birth to this objects. Special stress is laid on the social-humanitarian sphere. Such complex transforming activities we call humanitarian (or modern) engineering and speak about humanitarization areas of practice in which engineering penetrates and which it transforms. A glaring example is the humanitarian engineering activity in reforming the language by E.Ben Yehuda, we would like his name to be the symbol of our school.
Thus, the term “modern engineering” is loaded with two groups of meaning: Engineering-1 or E-1 – traditional (that is oriented on material objects) engineering together with providing it applied (including, scientific) knowledge and E-2 - engineering as realization of the engineering approach irrespective of a nature of transformable object with the accordingly extended case of providing knowledge. And the system of modern engineering education is understood, accordingly, in two senses: as system of introduction in actually engineering disciplines (E-1) and as system of coming-to-be of engineering thinking, penetrating into different areas of practice and reformative them (E-2).
The key spheres of humanitarian-engineering practice appear organizing-administrative activity, business (if to distinguish it from business), policy, military science. The last is directly closed with so-called reflexive management, the concept of radical reconsideration of methods and means of conducting modern war, and also new concept of safety is here again formed.
In our Project humanitarian engineering acts in three "persons":
As the sphere thinking-activity, inside which is created SHE (that is, we uses engineering means and forms of organization of works in creation SHE);
As universal practice, on which, as on a material, the processes of coming-to-be of intellectual functions of the pupils (so, the thinking-activity scheme becomes as a map of organization of educational process);
As sphere future ("adult") activity, for which it is necessary to prepare the schoolboy (that is, in educational process the processes engineering-2 - their start, expansion, realization, curls, and also trainings of these processes - should be reproduced).
Thus, the idea modern (humanitarian)
engineering is for us strategic idea-organizing bunch and the concept (thinking
about education and a place of its realization - about school), both design
engineering of school, and educational process, and further life of the
Essential value for our Project have the features of
the State Israel - its brightly expressed artificial component. (We hope, the
term “artificial” after all said is not accepted negatively). Not enough time
has passed, that this artificiality has taken roots in a history, became
habitual, got natural. From our point of view, the processes of innovations
transition in state of nature in Israel should continuously be indemnified by
formation of following innovations: we see our country at the head of process of
intellectualization and artification of life.
Israel - state, originating which one can be represented as outcome of humanitarian-engineering thought (Zionists): let's not forget that in the precursor term the location of our country and its arrangement was debated. Just so by product of engineering thought (E.Ben Yehuda) is modern Hebrew. Somewhat and people of Israel as a nation which is generatrix the state, is revived (hardly this process it is possible to consider finished) to life artificially. We do not speak about the nature of modern Israel, which one largely is human's handwork. With a problem of the future we consider formation of the Israeli culture, which one only starts to peep out through the mosaic of cultures of set of miscellaneous communities. We still fairly from being send from the period of intensive self-creation, for the present we - the nation-project.
The idea of humanitarian engineering is conformable to experience of Zionistic thought and practice. At all events urgency of this idea for Israel (and not just for the Israeli education) is difficult for overestimating even if to mean only forms of understanding of the modern history, and furthermore if to take into account outlooks of activity on a further arrangement of our country.
Place and the role of Israel in the Jewish world gives this idea the special, additional sense. Today children of many Jews from the whole world go in Israel for obtaining conventional Jewish education. We would like to keep this tradition, having supplemented the Jewish education with humanitarian-engineering once. Let Jewish children go to Israel to consolidate the national identification and to receive education giving to them even on some time (while ideas of humanitarian engineering there was no generally accepted) an advantage in relation to their whose is the same age, such education yet not receiving.
On our view, said gives large sense of implementation of the Project of the Humanitarian Engineering School in Israel. It, by the way, does not hinder subsidiary study of version with parallel cultivation of a system of new education at the Jewish schools of Russia and other countries. (Especially since in Moscow there is a school (#1311), where the soil is already loosened for sabadilla such).
As well as in any plutonic
transformations crucial importance in the given situation get a choice of
strategy and organization of works. The transition to performance of the
requirements of item 4 in scale of the country is connected to radical change of
the educational doctrine and all system of education. As this activity is
volumetric and is long, demands essential resources, and the today's society,
including a sphere of education, to it is not ready, we suppose, that the policy
of transformations should be based on ideas "of local social engineering" by
Karl Popper (It is useful to note, that the development strategy sold in a
series of the local projects, under all parameters, is diametrically opposite
officially selected in Russia and Israel of a path of modernization of the
national education system as a whole). In particular, the nearest steps of
transition should consist in creation of local precedents of engineering
education to preform a public opinion and to work through of the method. All to
begin, obviously, it is necessary from opening-up of the school teachers.
So, we carry out local experiment
supplied with research, analytical, methodological and expert support. Duration
of experiment 5-6 years. Experimental base - one of evening schools (working or
At a stage of experiment SHE supplements today's school and exists in parallel with it. SHE (certification) does not compete to today's school on "to quantity of knowledge" and legal status of the graduates (certification).
In SHE the study of school subjects is not cancelled. The main feature is, that the pupils are included in subject (or polysubject) practical activity
- For executions which one are necessary kknowledge different (not only subject) types;
- On which structures, as on a material, tthe processes humanitarian engineering, individualization and socialization and trainings of intellectual functions are developed. The forms of translation of scientific knowledge become one of kinds of ensuring of the specified processes and, hence, are modified for execution of this function.
The work will be carried out in cooperation with Igud Morim, MOFET MAFTEAH and colleges of Israel, methodological and educational canters of Russia (Moscow) and Ukraine (Kharkov).
We reckon on, that in experiment the following results will be received:
- The concept and techniques of organizatiion of humanitarian engineering education at school;
- The educational programs.
- Group of the teachers owning techniques;;
- Working SHE in Petah Tiqwa (Israel).
- Trajectories of the further movement of the concrete graduates (" the plan of life" on close prospect).
- Possession of ways of statement and probblem solving , conducting dialogue.
- Readiness for the creative acts and deveelopment of different spheres of practice.
Thus, conditions for replication of experience SHE and creation of a network of its branches will be created.
Financial estimation of the Project ~ up to 3 min. $ USD within 6 years. A substantiation of expenses in a stage of study.
The stage of Working Design is under
construction in view of three "faces" humanitarian engineering (see
5.1. Why "
School Humane Engineering "?) also provides realization of different type works,
which are shared on three parts:
In the first part the initiative group solves tasks of base preparation of the personnel future SHE:
Creates structure for preparation - Rates of preparation (RP).
Develops the Program of preparation (contents, forms of preparation).
In parallel carries out a set of the students on RP.
Carry out base preparation.
In the second part the preparation proceeds - students develop the Project SHE.
The in parallel initiative group carries out material and financial preparation for opening SHE. Also together with the students the initiative group collects the future schoolboys.
The third part of Working Design includes realization of the Project SHE, correction during realization, author's supervision, judgment and distribution of experience.
0 1 2
3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10
11 12 1 2 3
4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11
12 1 2 3 4
The circuit 1. A stage Working Design.
0 - beginning of design engineering.
The number of the executors, + - qualified executor, ++ - executors of maximum qualification is specified in brackets
In the Appendix (8.5. The details of Working Design) are given for each part.
8.1. Problems of Politics and Separateness.
There were much said about no effectiveness, inabilities of our policy to manage with social conflicts. It's no wonder: our policy is regarding as struggle for power, as personage's activity for occupation of places in state hierarchy. This policy (lets call it policy-1) doesn't own methods of statement and solving problems, which are lying in the basement of any socially significant conflict. So in the center of attention fall methods of bargains and redistributions, including pressure by force, e. d. technical and technological aspects (the same as pedagogical means of nowadays education - see above), and corresponding political mind is characterizes by no wholeness. Because of its features it's not capable to grasp and understand the whole, by serving interests of the unique social group  (because of it we distinguish between "politician" and "statesman", we have plenty of the first kind, and the second ...). As the whole can't be represented in mind of such "technical" kind, policy-1 can't bear responsibility for the whole. What it lead to?
It is known, that we have different social groups (communities) as the traditional as modern. Till the last time status quo was supported privately as the balance of interests and pretensions of groups, based not on political pressure, but on ideological principles, shared by the most of population - Zionism principles in one of its variants. Now this balance was disturbed. Associations (of the clan - community type) are trying to intrude into other's "territory'', rebuild others with respect to its own pattern and likeness and step over borders which have been set before. Each group'srepresentations pretend to truthfulness and universality. And it is our reality. But the very fact of presence of different "universalities" talking, in the best case, about their truthfulness in the frames of their partial world, from view of mind dominating nowadays - scientific in naturalistic variant - can't be apprehended and realized, as nowadays science (as religion by the way) confessed the principle of uniqueness, universality of the truth. By interfering with social processes, this arguing transfer to them its structure. So the plurality of "truths" existing in reality is qualified as mistake, recreancy and should be removed immediately for the sake of principle of singleness. And it isn't surprising: as representatives of such insights are today's education's products. Conflict proceeds in forms which are standard, ideologized and reproduces ineffective solutions, moral exhortations, the calls for strong personality, preservation of the outer threat as uniting (more similar to restraining) force or simply abolishment of the no clear, means dangerous, at worst - its unification.
Radical solution of situations of such unordinary kind (in contemporary world it became a rule) is impossible by means of policy-1. Attempts to find adequate means in culture's frames proved fruitless also (idea of "multiculturness" and its crafty, not legal expression in "politcorrectness" - in reality, permissiveness, based on thee same policy-1 - policy of interests), namely because any culture - by virtue of source idea - has no priority. We do not own other active methods, and the end of this destructive process doesn't visible. The situation has gone out of control, thereby we actually acknowledge inability to cope it by today's type of organization of our thinking. As shown by Mark Ratz, "multicultural society qualitatively differs from monocultural from monocultural one: the second can reproduce peacefully with the help of its culture; while the first doesn't reproducible in principle: or it lives in the regime of constant problematization and solving problems, that is develops, or collapses to component parts". With bitterness we recognize, that last 5-7 years the second variant becomes the Israeli reality more and more while " the public consent " passes in area of the Israeli rhetoric more and more these are the two sides of one medal.
Absence of means of achievement and support of the public consent represents for us real strategic threat. What does mean been bored "the world has come to movement"? It means, that new international elites are formed, contributions of the countries to world processes of updating are weighed, positions, the places occupied by the countries on political, economic, cultural and other world places are reconsidered. And these new places being on which welfare of any country in strongly connected world depends, are determined in a competition of images of the countries - by how these countries appear from the outside. Many of us who maintains communications with the Europe, America, Russia and other countries, come to confusion and despair, facing with a uncooperative altitude to Israel (though at a personal level, as a rule, all isokay), with obstruction of various Israeli initiatives, with easing of cultural, scientific, trading communications till break. It is possible to find the concrete reasons in each case of such actions, to be indignant with unconscientiousness and juggling of our opponents, to hint at errors, anti-Semitism, etc. It is possible to call "to strengthen, "speed up" "to improve" campaigns in world mass-media, performances of intellectuals at the international conferences, friendly meetings, briefings in protection of Israel, etc., it is possible even to realize these appeals - all this doesn't cost of a broken penny. Therefore as an external image of the country doesn't forms by means of its transfer, but that became real contents of an internal public consensus. This contents and values standing up behind it are expertise by the world community. "It is not important, that other nations think, it is important, that Jews make", - such could be was possible to say and to act only in conditions of the public consent and then it had value, external authority and moral force. Today these words sound inappropriate, and more likely, sarcastically. It's look like that our place in the future world will be determined not by us.
Two questions can be here: (1) is it enough for contemporary democracy the political thinking innowadays apprehension or social- cultural situation have changed so much from times of English bourgeois revolution, that the preservation of democracy as instrument for coordination of the various social interests demands other understanding of democracy - in the frames of another type of thinking? (2) Does the nowadays type of political thinking able to supply us with practical social transformations and lead us from the second regime of multiculturness?
As a result arena of fight for ''light futures'' (Israel - "galachic" state, Islam republic, part of ''world village'', country of ''equal opportunities'', open society and others) has moved to area of demographic competitions. By estimations of exerts its outcome will come through about 30-40 years. Plurality and variability will be radically eliminated to pleasure of some groups and grief of others: someone again will appear in Diaspora. At all times and all people had "wise gudgeons", speech isn't about them , but about those few citizens, completely do not belonging to "week" social layers, in which experience of this prospect causes reaction of alienation "let it all gone to hell", conducts to asocial actions, 'suitcase mood'', emigration (lets take a look to Ben Gurion airport), weakness of spirit and state. Is this an inevitable final?
Statement of this question leads to problem of limitation оf sphere оf application of scientific type of thinking. How can it be done?
The radical limit can be set by accomplishment of two conditions: (1) occurrence in the first half of this period the big enough number of citizens with view of non the "uniform" world, defined by this or that cultural dogma, but many real worlds a variety of forms of life and thinking which are their intrinsic feature, and preservation of which is considered priority value; (2) Transition to a policy-2 which is constructed as competition of organizational - administrative programs and is focused on intellectually provided dialogue for revealing and resolution of problems and of conflicts behind them (that is not to be focused on redistribution of resources but on their increase). Opposite to policy-1 - this is not policy of interests but development. Both of these conditions can not be produced by means of propaganda, reading newspapers, religious literature or passages of fast training courses. They are connected with the other type of thinking which bases should be pawned since the childhood.
Let's pay attention that the brought example isn't single, conflicts and problem situations staying behind them - constant satellites of our life (we have reminded it in part.2). This circumstance couldn't be ignored more, opposite, it should be used for good. It means that educational system have to "supply" for these situations with people capable and able to join in collective activity, to adjust communication and cooperationin it; to formulate purposes within the limits of this collective activity; to organize collective activity on achievement of the purposes; to look for new creative decisions in various conditions of situations; to criticize constructively the own decisions and the decisions of others, to find problem staying behind it to pass to looking for new decisions and so on.
In connection with permanent variability and individuality of situations causing conflicts in "world-process", supporting of social agreement maintenance of the public consent demands permanent enrichment of our methods and means helping to recognize a constructive potentialin conflict: reveling and solving problems staying behind them. Other words, social consolidation represents not as state but as process, demanding not only the other forms of intellectual activity providing it, but it development also.
Today's mass education is unable to provide these processes.
8.2. Problems of mastering by activity.
At present time already many people should receive the second higher education during a life, change specialization not once, and even a trade, an image, a way of life. The former kinds of activity are modified and new kinds arise, new trades, new cooperative connections of activities, requirements to the mastered kinds of activities change. In search of worthy workplaces many to some extent collide with necessity to transform their activity, to collect or disassemble it, to enter or to leave it, to bury, when it has exhausted, and to build new activity for oneself. In works of thinkers of the past and our contemporaries that fact was emphasized, that as people we exist as far as we are included in some activity, as we are figures, as during activity we enter different sorts of relation with other people. But only now, before our eyes concepts of activity became claimed and start to be realized, activity is realized as mass-like "object", operations above which are similar to what are carried out by the engineer (in traditional sense of this word) above the objects. And so there are in all spheres of our life, in all areas of concrete practices. To master these operations, conceptions about activity as the whole (activity does not have parts) are necessary, the complex of polytypic knowledge of activity is necessary, and only scientific (subject oriented) knowledge of it appears insufficiently.
Similarly to variability of activity, mobility of a manpower both in space, and in qualification continues to increase. The school has answered it with an orgy of means: more subjects, more lessons, more refined technique, more dense "packing" of knowledge due to psycho-techniques, instead of the unwrapped knowledge - their catalogue, etc. It is race behind own shadow, the limit of exhaustion of which is already visible.
Uncertainty of the future career of the graduate forces to doubt and of expediency of subject specialization (profiling) in the senior classes which appears as useful as and harmful. (Schools in America and England already refuse from profiling. Years, probably, through 10 our organizers of education will understand it also. In conditions of changes subjectivness in "world-process" any conciliatory proposal ("golden mean") of this question will be at random also.
Other answer in a pursuit of a labor market became a network of establishments for improvement of professional skill and a training for a new profession which was established in many countries at a level of the state programs (its logic conclusion - in the thesis: "to study all life"). Its purpose - fast "adjustment" of the person under the certain activity: in ideology of this network the person still remains on the same level as material, product, means, and other components of activity as was appreciated in an industrial society. Today this ideology is still alive (we have it maintained by influential figures of education who risk to lose incomes and the social status at its canceling), but is inefficient: it was quickly enough found out, that the system manages very expensively and does not justify itself economically. It, certainly, gives the certain rates of growth in industrial sectors which are still kept, but expenses often exceed the achieved effect. Thus it also is late, so cannot be applied in a mode of development. But if the school not in a condition to serve a labor market which dynamics is now defined outside of school, it could be worth to think of increase of its role in formation of a labor market? 
8.3. Situation in Israeli school: why and which educational reform is needed.
Whether there are bases for realization of new requirements at our school? No, and attempts of such base's creation are not visible too.
Our public including pedagogical, and the more to the bodies responsible for education, the situation in general is represented absolutely other. Actually, in conditions of domination (by the way, not only in Israel) the natural-science doctrine it cannot be differently. The analysis of a situation in sphere of education - extensive enough theme. We hope, that as a whole this situation is clear from told above and we'll be limited here to brief consideration of its two fragments which seem to us key fragments.
Reproduction of naturalism.
Up to now the mass school professes all the same ideas of its purpose and construction which have been put forward in XVII - XVIII centuries, all the same orientation on accumulation of knowledge almost as synonym of erudition and guaranty of development of the person and society. And knowledge of the certain type - scientific in a naturalistic variant. Any subject is simply copy of a scientific subject. Probably only healthy natural " resistance of a material " and imperfection of pedagogical methods and techniques saves schoolboys from prospect to become scientists without exception. This orientation is based on "the cultural approach" (see item 3), and the culture is represented in the form of vast pantry in which "there is all". In this sense the school is as though switched off from historical time, and only spasms from a soreness of the mouth caused by next "experiment" of political establishment, run on its serene face.
Meanwhile "fundamental" (in dominating sights) natural sciences, roughly speaking, describe only processes, which proceed without intervention of man (or can be presented so), that is form the volume of knowledge about natural component of the process-world. Artificial component, set by the men-figure, is not seized by scientific knowledge (but it is represented in knowledge of other types: constructive-technical, practice-methodical, humanitarian and methodological - see the Scheme 2). It is especially important for understanding, that opposition "natural" and "artificial" as major category of our thinking yet did not become property of culture.
Within the limits of opposition "artificial" and "natural" the future can be thought, accordingly, or as “ an empty place ” which filling depends on our actions, or, on the contrary, as a condition connected with the present by a chain of natural relationships of cause and effect. In the second case it appears as a picture though drawn by a fog of uncertainty, which density symbolizes a fragmentariness of scientific knowledge, but always this place is already filled with something, there is something already lays on it - by virtue of certain scientific laws. Anything is impossible to put in the future by the own will, and any project activity within the limits of a scientific picture of the world, strictly speaking, is impossible. Therefore there are no converting tasks in a science. And cognitive activity is represented one-sidedly: mainly as accumulation of scientific knowledge to the detriment of its "symmetric" representation as transformations of system of the saved up knowledge.
On a popular appeal " the school should teach to think " the most advanced today's teacher reacts an intensification of teaching of mathematics and natural sciences: as a rule, his cogitative means do not allow to distinguish thinking and its product - knowledge. And at the best, his concepts about thinking are limited by one form of existence of thinking - a reasoning, a discourse when the thinking moves with respect to preset (scientific) logic. Such forms as supposing o (frameworks, schemes, ideas, ontology, concepts, etc.), transcendental thinking (an exit from the frameworks put, change of spaces of reasoning), self-determination, appear are inaccessible neither to him, nor his pupils.
Total scientific character of school education appears not only in a priority of knowledge of scientific type, but also in the organization of pedagogical process when, for example, on the basis of "scientific researches" age groups are determined by mental ("natural") opportunities of the pupil under which those or other pedagogical methods and the technologies adequate to his intelligence then steal up. However, as it has been proved forty more years before (V.V.Davydov), all is much more difficult: in practice the today's age scale is determined not so much by mental characteristics of the age, as by existing pedagogical methods and the class-lessons organization of educational process. But the scientific thinking does not notice this "artificial" moment. As a result at our school, especially, initial and average, "effect Maugli" arises (this consequence is noticeable by all): if to think of and concern to the child as to " natural object " we shall receive him in a reality. In the senior classes, on the contrary, child is concerned as to pure "artificial object" which it could be filled with a chasm of knowledge: there is no place to escape - "bagrut" and a life are ahead, here is not up to a science, it is necessary to make pragmatically decisions. But the pupil leaves the elementary grades, being not burdened by functional literacy (the account, the writing, connectivity of a statement of the ideas, skill to concentrate attention, skill to work, etc.), And to make up for it is already late. Result - fragility of knowledge, inability to use them: whatever is proclaimed, actually senior school is focused on success of entering to the high school, but not on success of the learning in high school. The pedagogical public discusses this phenomenon as "break of initial and senior schools" and offers the obvious decision: to distribute a teaching material more or less in regular intervals along years of training. But business does not go further, as the problem consists not in loss of a way of division of a piece to equal parts, and in lack of scientific thinking of tools of a combination "artificial" with "natural" without which every redistribution threatens to become the next mechanistic inefficient entertainment.
The motivation to study became an inescapable
problem of school. And it's connected with understanding of study as process of
purchase of subject knowledge also. Therefore, when speak, that study should be
a holiday, one mean that children whether congenitally, whether under influence
of education, like to receive knowledge. In practice it's not observed.
" Why or what for to study? " - a natural question of the child. " To receive knowledge, they are useful always and will be useful in a life ", - the adult answers. More in detail, there are three variants of answers: the appeal to the past (family or national traditions, the law on general education), the appeal to the future (positive - "when you'll be taught - you'll become the owner, the academician, well-known person, you will continue business of parents" and negative - "if you'll not study, you'll not receive "bagrut", you'll be street cleaner as uncle Igal"). At last, the reference to the present - attempt to make a subject interesting, more often through the person of the teacher. Effectiveness of first two variants is limited by small horizons of child's thinking capacity and his inability to incur the responsibility for his life and keeps only on authority of adults - a basis that is rather shaky in our time of changes.
The third variant it is more complex. Certainly, the certain activity is carried out at school which is training. By not incoming in characteristics of its quality, but only having looked at structure (see for example, here), it is possible to see easily, that the child takes a place of "a processable material" in it, but not a place of the subject. The third variant it is more complex. Certainly, the certain activity is carried out at school which is training. By not discussing characteristics of its quality, but only having looked at structure (see for example, here), it is possible to see easily, that the child takes
It is considered, that " the school prepares for a life ", that is models a "adult" life in the cognizable child forms. If to concern to this key thesis seriously, it would be necessary to pay special attention, in particular, to "pair" processes of an individualization and socialization. Now the form of the socially-spatial organization of children's collective is the class. In a life in one business people of 2 - 3 generations usually cooperate that provides transfer of experience. Whether did anybody see in a "adult" life one-age collectives (except for army and similar extreme cases)? . Then what experience of socialization is taken out by the child from school? And why we are surprised to "bad behavior" and "absence of culture" if the school puts the child in position when he is compelled to be socialized itself "under a fence", spontaneously? Whether the high-grade individualization of the child in conditions of the deformed socialization is possible? Also what it is possible to oppose movement for externalization of educations, as reaction to the deformed socialization (in a number of countries, including in America, this movement becomes more and more popular, so, will come to Israel soon)?
Often proclaimed thesis that the school should release " the free people, capable to live in a democratic society ", could not be realized in conditions of transfer of knowledge of scientific type: the scientific thinking is monologue like, scientific knowledge is normative and cultivating them forms such thinking which aspires to be entered in the norms preset, that is very useful for "operated democracy" and democratic rhetoric. It appears, that all these theses carry out today only function of unfair advertising of rudimentary social policy.
One more consequence of the scientific organization of
thinking is shown in actions of the teacher, aspiring to develop in children
understanding. As a rule, to the pupil is offered to retell the text ("text" -
in the broad sense of the word) and to answer questions on the contents of the
text. Satisfactory, logical answers should testify that the understanding is
achieved. Frequently, however, this certificate of presence of memory.
At present time the three types of understanding is known: 1) through correlation of the text with experience of thinking that the pupil could continue logically of the reconstructed from the text contents (to develop it or to reject ideas on some bases); 2) correlation with activity which subject is the pupil, for overcoming the difficulties which have met in it or its designing from origin; 3) correlation of the text with its source when the pupil reconstructs a situation speaking (writing, showing) and is positioned in relation to him - a necessary condition of human coexistence. All three types "are built in" our intelligence. The school at the best is limited
The religious thinking practised in a number of schools, is based approximately on the same categorial logic, as scientific. Therefore specified above feature of secular education are shown at religious schools also, and more convex. Both these types of outlook and education are equally partial and equally apply for universality. For this reason they also conduct to irrepressible conflict.
It is necessary to tell about the educational projects,
realized by repatriates from the UIS - schools of "additional" education, MOFET
and similar to it. These projects arise in a situation of unemployment of
teachers-repatriates, within the limits of the imported demand. Therefore the
emphasis in them is done on the subjects of a natural-science cycle adequate to
habitual requirements of an industrial society. The level of teaching and
qualification of teachers at these schools have appeared much more above Israeli
owing to what these schools have got popularity. The departmental decision on
distribution of similar schools is recently accepted, blessing to that for a
long time teaching in many of them is conducted in a Hebrew already. However it
is success within the limits of all of the same scientific doctrine, all of the
same "cultural approach" which adequacy to modern requirements to education we
put under doubt. Certainly, the broadest field of action for reduction of the
Israeli schools to MOFET's level opens.
However it is necessary to mean, that it is a situation of catching up
modernization ("the better, the worse"): its ending - the best in the world
school "of the third world ".
The second theme, we would like to touch, - is
Politization of sphere of education.
In Israel there are five officially recognized types of the comprehensive schools reproducing corresponding communities (religious-secular - state-private plus of school SHAS). All of them have there own programs and techniques. Today the sphere of our education has turned to field of social fights: one communities aspire to weaken others due to entering handicaps into processes of their reproduction. This process, frequently accepting aggressive forms, is justified by necessity "to rally people". Hardly there will be in Israel a person doubting vital importance of such argument. However in practice the platform of "rallying" can considerably change in favor of that or other communities, depending on current arrangement of political forces in the government, instruments of "rallying" always become the same knowledge of subject oriented type ("more mathematics, geography and biology!" - "no more the Jewish history and a Torah!", etc.). And ideologies inspiring this process ("democracy", "general freedom", "correction of customs", "belief", "political correctness", etc.) are incorrigibly partial. And all these stupid experiments, distracting from understanding of the valid problems and disorientating of teachers, our school is compelled to bear on itself! Domination of the subject oriented organization of knowledge favors to temptation to use school as the tool of political strike (for example, for expansion and strengthening of party electorate).
Thus, at today's school we all the time collide with discrepancies each other
- That is proclaimed as values and the purrposes of education, on the one hand,
- Real results of education - with other,<
- Objects of a reflection in occasion of ddiscrepancies - with third,
- Objects of reflection in occasion of impproving
And if one ask, what for is necessary reform of education, the answer is obvious: for elimination of these breaks and restoration complete "thought-action"of educations. Means, original reforming is not changes of orders at school, the ministry, etc. the organizations, but reforming of thinking of reformers.
8.4. The bases.
Certainly, we plan the given work not on an empty place. Ideas, more or less similar with developed in our Project, are successfully realized in a number of educational institutions of Russia and the UIS (From time to time there are interesting publications in the Internet-periodical press, for example, one of the last here и here).
The special analysis of the Russian experience in this area, as far as we know, was not made, and we can list addresses known to us only. These are:
The Development's School "NOOGEN" in Novosibirsk, http://www.noogen.ru/index.php .
This list obviously is not full..
Search, the review, ordering and the analysis of set of publications, which contents vould be consider as elements of history or background of our Project, make a theme of independent scientific work. Therefore we shall be limited here to brief instructions on books and articles which stand directly "behind the staff" of given text and will be involved during realization of the Project.
Major of them are G.P.Schedrovitsky's setting the direct bases of our Project the works. With a name of Schedrovitsky is the connected action orientedapproach used by us, As opposed to the naturalistic approach, dominating now, within the limits of the action oriented approach our world is considered as the world of thinking and activity in their historical expansion. (we tried to unwrap this thesis, in particular, characterizing educational process in SHE). The basic sources brought below is possible to divide on two groups.
1. Works of the general character from which we shall specify mainly G.P.Schedrovitsky's works. More or less representative case them is accessible only in the electronic form (on СD-rom). Partially they are collected in Schedrovitsky's books (and on Internet sites http://circle.ru , http://www.shkp.ru/, http://gp.metod.ru/):
Selected works. М., 1995, 800 с.back
As possible introduction to these difficult enough works books of authors of the given project could be recommended:
Ratz M. Policy of development: first steps in Russia. М. !995
Kazarnovsky A. Theory of floors washing. Jerusalem, 1998.
To the concept of engineering in the action oriented approach are devoted works:
Gorokhov V. To know, for to make. M., 1987.
Problems of organization and development of engineering activity", Obninsk,1990
Proskurin V. Humanitarian engineering? Yes.
2. The works, specially devoted to application and development the action oriented approach in sphere of education:
Gromiko Y. Methasubject "Problem".
The manual for pupils of the senior classes. M. 1998.
Zinchenko A. Pedagogical engineering. Kiev, 1997.
Zinchenko A. Play pedagogic. Toljatti, 2000.
Zelzerman B, Tanzorov S. Lithuanian schools with Russian language education: problems and perspectives. Working map of situation. Riga, 2000.
Nikitin V. (edit.) Culture and technique of culture in educational context. Toljatti. 1995.
The Jewish school problems in Post Soviet Russia (edit. Karnozova L. and others). M. 2000.
Pinsky A., Rokitjansky V. Tradition and Mainstream. M. 2000.
Proskurin V.. Management of the humanitarian engineering processes.
Proskurin V. ConnectionsWithCommunications.
Proskurin V. Modern orienteer of higher education: management of an advancing.
Khasan B., Khromchenko M. The world without confrontation or Long live the Conflict. The Gymnasia of Krasnoyarsk "Univers", M. 2001.
Khasan B., Sargomanov P. The resolution of conflicts and negotiating. Educational manual. M.2001.
G.P.Schedrovitsky and others. Pedagogic and Logic. M. 1993 (The book is printed on the imposition kept 1968 г., when the set of the book was dispersed).
G.P.Schedrovitsky. Temptation by development. The report which has been read through at conference “Pedagogic of development: age dynamics and stages of education”, taken place in Krasnoyarsk on 24-26 April of 1997 y.
G.P.Schedrovitsky. Sketches on philosophy of education. M. 1993.
For completeness of a picture we shall specify proceeding editions:
"Questions of Methodology". During 1991-1999 y.y. have been
realized 32 numbers of Magazine.
"Centaur", methodological and play technique almanac. From 1990 y. have been realized 26 numbers.
Ethnomethodology: problems, approaches, conceptions. From 1994 г. have been released 6 numbers.
8.5. Details of design engineering
Courses of preparation of personnel (CP) of school. The program of preparation should provide listeners by development of the contents of humanitarian engineering education: the world outlook bases, the conceptual corpus, procedural features, and also a method and processes of designing.
The program will provide translation of the new contents (lecture), disconcerting forms of work (reflective seminars, gamed, imitations) and forms of fastening of experience (trainings, reflection). Psychological support of a course, and for some listeners - material grants should be provided
Command preparation is carried out. Listeners are collected in 2 complex groups (team), in each of which subject- teachers and administration of the future SHE are presented. Number of a team - 10-15 members. An action oriented and psychological criterions, and selection of listeners procedures for CP should be designed, taking in account their abilities (in future may be) to introduce the pupil into modern spheres of activity (formation of the first notions, concepts about subjects, objects, main principles of construction, purpose of the given sphere of activity in the expanded frameworks on a background of history - propaedeutics, about prospects of its transformations by means of the engineering approach): in private enterprise, ecology, economy, sociology, psychology, engineering-1, a policy-2, organizational management, etc. Purpose of introduction - demonstration of possible spaces "after school" self-determination and providing of pupils by means of their construction in the further (how to build them). It is quite possible and even desirable to collect listeners from among students of the senior rates of pedagogical high schools and the persons practising in the chosen sphere of activity.
Process of preparation itself should be provided by the reflective control over initiative group.
In the future transformation CP to constantly operating establishment of preparation of the personnel for schools of type SHE is possible. Also it is not excluded, that CP experience could be useful for the future reform of pedagogical education across the nation.
Main principle: In SHE there are working those who are projecting of it. The main process of preparation of personnel following from it - projecting of SHE. Project of SHE is developed in following structure:
educational plans (EPL),
Educational programs are intended for management of a course of educational process in SHE. They are thought as (documentary fixed) connections of the concept of humanitarian engineering education, pedagogical techniquesand procedures, a way of life at school, and Curricula - as means of distribution of educational and recreational processes in time and current coordination of processes.
Development of EPRwill originate from the following principles:
(1) accentuations of their historical component (History of development of subject knowledge in the given area, on the one hand, and ways of their practical use, with another. The subject material thus is used for demonstration. The history is treated, certainly, not as “ history of wars and empires ”, but as history of thinking and activity together with the transformed forms generated by them, including wars and empires. It is important to understand, how and for what tasks decision various modified forms have arised, - starting from knowledge (culture) and finishing things (the second nature), - from processes of thinking and activity, why and in what conditions these tasks were set. Within the limits of teaching history there should be special courses of philosophy of history and historiographies, historical reconstruction and the analysis, natural history and history of a society the task of which - to learn to distinguish and correlate desirable and possible in the efforts directed on change of circumstances a life);
(2) Introductions of the special disciplines training function of understanding (for example, studying of languages. At studying languages in SHE alongside with traditional studying of grammar, a lexicon, language practice and in parallel with them a special emphasis should be laid on ways of creation and the use of various language designs and speech genres. New aspect (for school) gets thus studying of the literature as special system of the use of language. Besides the literature should be used as a material for formation of comprehended skills (of "slow", “stumbled”) readings. The history of the literature thus will be separated from bases of the theory of literary).
(3) statements of the different points of view on one question and the organization of discussions on them (it is important to reveal and discuss senses and the bases of the points of view, their argument).
In the limits of design of EPR the following tasks are solving:
- choice of area of practical activities (for example, engineering-1), which will serve as a material for expansion on it (in occasion of its organization and realization) other processes; its organization should provide also introduction of the pupil in a position of its subject (subjectivization);
Educational groups will be formed in view of a current level of preparation of pupils and their abilities of participation in collective work above one project (task). Thus, groups with uneven-age pupils in one group are possible. In the beginning the teacher in group executes function of the organizer of designing, gradually passing in a mode of consultation. The senior groups together with teachers will join in engineering development under external orders. For each group, in the beginning together with pupils, and subsequently by pupils, the trajectory of its promotion on modeling situations is planned and adjusted, and education in SHEcomplies with development of individual trajectories ("life plans") on the future. We shall recognize that individuality of the pupil as formed in processes of his reflective fixing of the experience of transitions from one types and kinds of activity mastered to another. It wil required to develop and to fill up further variable enough set of these types and kinds.
Certainly, development and training of the general of " functional literacy " - reading, writing, accounting, memory, cooncentration of attention, managing with computer, foreign languages, etc. - remain at school. To this list elements special "functional literacy", necessary for work in the selected area of practice will be added.
Expansion of practical works in SHEwill demand (depending on the selected sphere of practice) corresponding material maintenance in the form of workshops, laboratories, thematic cabinets and simply free spaces, which function varying (for games, creative exhibitions, a recreation, etc.), an easy excess to libraries and Internet, - that should be considered in the engineering design.
Considering all work as experiment, it will be necessary and to determine from this point of view features of its objects, ways experimenting, to specify duration (a few years) and necessary maintenance.
Development of EPRis rather multi-plane, multi-tem, multi-professional work, it is necessary to be ready also that to develop and execute special projects of the "second" echelon in its support and development, including, research projects would be required.
On the basis of EPR the Curricula coordinated among themselves are made.
The following course of design engineering can be offered. In the beginning methodological design of educational space is carried out. On a first step it is received topedspace, a set of tops follows from requirements p.4 (the scheme 2). Then the contents of each top is represented as corresponding system. Systems are interconnected and mutual conditioned, i.e. are in functional relations. These relations it is possible to construct through by a method of "dragging" of one system through others. The base educational system (BES) is understood as "place" of realization of these relations and, apparently, can be represented on the scheme of mental activity. The structure of the BES is variable, depends on current educational tasks and can be collected from standard modules (units of the original pedagogical designer) which should be developed (for example, modules of the organization and carrying out of practical activities, mastering of knowledge, removals of experience, carrying out of trainings, self-determination, etc.) . That is, the BES is a situational sheaf of diverse components of educational space, and this sheaf represents a modeling situation. Such flexible approach provides standardization of processes, economy of forces and time and an opportunity of reproduction of processes in other circumstances.
Then, groups for development of the contents of each system are formed. Groups work in parallel, the design decisions made are discussed and will be coordinated at the common seminar. Work can be organized in game style.
Here design engineering is combined with real educational process in SHE. During it EPR should be worked out. Therefore personnel of SHEreceives functions of monitoring, the analysis and problematization of an educational situation, correction EPR and means of its development, and also function of development of the Project as a whole. For realization of these functions constantly operating working seminar which is having the right of decision-making on mentioned questions will be organized. Independent experts, researchers, methodologists and analysts are involved in work of a seminar..
8.6. Sense and place of Project in frameworks of School education reform.
Last years in Israel discussions of reform of school education at different levels and in different forms became more active.The necessity of a radical reform and association of the public around of new (for Israel) ideas and offers on their realization was emphasized in them. (It is difficult to tell, in what sense "radicalism" was understood. Frequently it only expressed an emotional condition of speaking. For us radicalism is a measure of realization of reform according to its purpose - see at the end of Section 8.3.Situation in Israel school). Initiators assumed, that ideas will be apprehended by the public, and as their spokesmen and lobbyists the professional organizations, political parties and movements will act. Campaigns have been directed to ideologization of public due to criticism of lacks of today's school. One of results of campaigns became the better understanding of situation in which any offer and action on reform of education gets into. Including our Project. Running forward, we shall note, that this situation is adverse, and to improve it, it is necessary to solve a problem of the organization of the reforming, described below.
Two parts of Reform of education.
Specific proposals on reform can be divided on two parts:
From the point of view of integrity of reform any of offers is not sufficient.
It seems to many, that these offers mutually exclude each other. However, from (vacant till now) positions of management of reform they are seen differently - as equally necessary parts of the mechanism of reform: the first provides the elementary ordering of system of school education, prepares organizational-economic and psychological conditions for promotions in the second part, and becomes the form relative to it; in turn, the contents, sense and an orientation of many actions of the first part (as forms) are set by the concept and works of the second part.
We confirm, that only parallel realization of both parts of reform can lead to basic improvement of functionality and quality of our education. So, strategy of reforming should consist in creation of the mentioned mechanism of interrelation and mutual coordination of parts. At the same time all attention is now concentrated to the first part. Therefore we shall not touchit further, and we shall discuss that will allow to promote in the second part.
As a first approximation the answer to a question on sense of our Project consists that "the Project is one more step on a way of reforming of the Israeli education". For expansion of the answer it is necessary to plunge into history a little.
Ian Komensky (1592-1670) and his followers have made, at least, two historical acts. The first: have brought deciding contribution to prevention of assimilation of Czech people to the German environment, having developed and having realized a powerful way of translation of culture. For without culture there is no people.
The second act could be considered as a payment of the future generations for success of the first if to not consider that unbiased fact, that any successful contribution to social development is historically limited and in the future, perhaps, rather remote, will by all means create deadlocks and problems. We mean that innovations of Komensky have predetermined destruction of conceptual and organizational integrity of education. But he has resolved excellent the task and has remained in history the sample of the reformer.
The problem here is the following. Education usually is determined as translation of culture and education, and its purpose are considered as introduction of the person in the world. Imagine, that the necessary school while is not present yet, it still should be created, and this general definition of education should be proceeded to educational processes and practical actions. Obviously, it would be necessary to begin from answers to questions on its sense and contents:
What world we are going to prepare for the pupil for a life in: in last, today's or modern? What features of this world which should be considered? What of its processes and tendencies should be maintained, what to brake and why? What role and place of school in processes of national self-identification?
What new requirements to an education system and its place in a society arise in this connection? Whether itshould change and in what direction? What new contents should appear in it, what new principles can be put in the basis of its structure?
Whether it is important and how to enter base (uniform for all) school education (especially, in conditions of the market), than is how its contents is determined and whether it is probably to construct it on the market compromise of different approaches ("we to you - Talmud, and you to us - mathematics") or other principles are needed?
What requirements can be exposed to base education that it became (in an ideal) equally comprehensible to different groups of the population and carried out an integrativefunction in conditions of the Israeli poly-ethnos and poly-culture?
What for to study (a question of the schoolboy)? What are purposes of today's school? To that does it teach, to that should teach?
What should be understood as "training", "education", "doctrine"? How they are organized?
What types of knowledge are present at school now and what should become priority?
What should be a place and function of alternative education during reform?
Whether will satisfy us models of education known for today in the world or an essence of reform consists in transition to new type of education?, etc., etc.
Questions approximately of such kind and level Komensky and his colleagues studied in XVII century (in Israel they stood last time, apparently, about 50 years ago when the Israeli school was created). Ideas of that epoch (aspiration to universality, enciclopedicality, a priority of knowledge of scientific type) and concrete socio-cultural situation in Czech have determined his concept of education. These conceptual development, as is known, have led to creation of mass school, the subject oriented organization of contents of education, teaching under uniform programs, to creation of the form of one-age children's collective organization - a class and the form of the organization of process of transfer of knowledge in time - a lesson. It is necessary to train everybody to everything, and under "all" knowledge only one type - scientific or religious are understood.
By that Komenskyand his followers have generated the engine of mass pedagogical manufacture and teachers in it only two functions have left: creation of techniques of teaching of subjects and direct application of means of translation in operation. More of that teachers do not need to think neither of sense, nor about the contents of education: they have object (the real pupil), the purposes (to enclose in him the sum of knowledge defined by the standard program) both the mass means and ways of transfer of this knowledge plus the individual pedagogical art which is turned out during years. Such turned to be very suitable after 250-300 years, during an epoch of industrialization when the deep division of labor and mechanization of activity was required. Thus activity of training (transfer of knowledge) as base at school is set and at the same time preconditions of narrowing of limits of mind, reductions of educational subjects to tool and short circuit of it within the limits of this activity are created. And further there is a fastening a reduction in processes of reproduction of teachers and institutionalization of pedagogic as independent system of activity. In XX century already with the advent of the school methodologist this function have been taken from the teacher also, and the teacher turns to "a megaphone of knowledge". So he reaches our time in naive belief that is engaged in education. On the other hand, "homeless" sense and the contents of education are taken away to scientific corners - the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and the decisions determining a real state of affairs in education are assigned to politicians and statesmen. Education becomes the tool of social policy, that frequently transforms it into a subject of the political tender and disorganizes system.
But itnot enough. As the subject of education copies a scientific subject, set of school subjects appears to be as shattered, differentiated and is weakly connected, as well as scientific disciplines. Each teacher becomes isolated in the contents of his subject. In turn, it leads to deep "atomization" of teachers, and, "valence of atoms" are rather low. Communication between them is carried out not due to the general contents - it is not present, and only in occasion of conditions of school activity when the school represents itself as social or administrative body. They become "transcendental object", and the more they skilled in their subject, the more closed and stable are their contents. The task "to entice" the teacher from his subject shell for only to show his real place in educational structures, not always solvable.
Thus, a disintegration of educationhappens: the thinking about the education, producing senses and the contents of education, starts to exist separately from pedagogical activity and pedagogical thinking which are centered on means of translation of contents defined once. It is possible to talk about practicality  of pedagogic in its frameworks ("practicality in small"), but in frameworks of education ("in great") practicality were lost. In XIX century disintegration was organizational fixed in social institutes of teaching, policy and a science. Namely this did not reflex circumstance disappears behind emotional exclamation: "How much is conservative our school!", when attempts to "coordinate" initial, average and senior schools, school and high school to pass from slogans about creation "the creative person and the subject" to real affairs or to keep up in hopeless race with a modern labor market encounter as though a blank wall.
From that time we are living with the problem of recovering of the wholeness (or practicality) of education. Any time when the necessity of relating of the schoolstructure with the changed social conditions become realized, the situation arouse: new requirements to school cannot be formulated in bowels of pedagogic for the above-stated reasons, and new senses and the contents of education which are formulated and developed "on the side", meet on a way to realization a serious barrier of caste limitation and misunderstanding in the school and administrative environment. The problem consists in uncertainty of "intermediary" which will connect thinking about education with a daily school life, will transform educational concepts into new school structures and design anew all norms of activity at school. More shortly, will create and will put on a place the former new school device.
One can't say, that teachers did not notice and did not react to discrepancies and breaks of school and a society. But these reactions were specific: they were limited to frameworks of pedagogic ("a practicality in small"), replacing in consciousness of teachers all education, and consisted in updating structure of the translating knowledge (for these centuries the mankind has collected a mass of knowledge, that has generated a problem of their selection for school, a problem in which has sunk today's pedagogic), in creation of new methods of an intensification and rationalization of activity in which teachers were engaged. Perfection of ways of translation of that frequently need not to translate any more, became aim in itself and pedagogical valour. The contents of school education has not undergone any basic changes: for this purpose means of the analysis, problematization, statements new (cultural-historical, socio-cultural) frameworks, aim-definition and so forth are necessary, and teachers are removed from which, not interested in which, and do not own of which. Nevertheless, the opportunity of the problem decision proves to be true by creation of schools of new type such, as Montessori, Valdorf, Dewey, Schools of Developing Training, the Own Business Affairs, " the Children's World ", "Humanitarian education" and many others. Lets notice, that it always occurs "on a roadside", instead of in system of mass schools, and thus the group of initiators shares the common world outlook and combines development of new concepts with their realization.
As is known, conservatism of school played and plays a positive role in stabilization of public processes, but - up to some limit. Today breaks between a demand to school and its unintelligible answer (more likely, silence) became especially striking, and necessity of basic school reform is already recognized not only by many countries, but also at a level of UNESCO("Education for XXI century" - Report of ЮНЕСКО 2000).
However "problems in general" does not exist, they always has their destination. Whose is a problem of restoration of integrity of education, who its subject? We believe, that that is subject who meets following requirements:
First, takes the responsibility for statement and the decision of a problem. So, the understanding of a situation, possession of techniques of problematizationand resources for the organization of the resolve of a problem is required from him. He takes design of cultural norms (assignment, values, the purposes) and a reflection of education in historical and socio-cultural context. One of features of this work consists in its temporary scale: it is commensurable with duration of a productive human life, and its consequences affect destiny of following generations. Therefore inclusion in it also demands crucial self-determination - historical.
The public subject is not the person, and a position with which many concrete persons meeting listed requirements can occupy. This position exists not "at whom" and not "at what", and above social institutes. Concerning an education system this position external. People enter into it not so much as representatives of establishments (including state), trades, parties or communities, but as competent persons with the life experience and the interests, anxious by a state of affairs in education. This place where the public communications will be organized and carried out, public thinking in occasion of education and the complex decisions are taken by participants of a position due to resources (financial, information, social, administrative, etc., finally, all that can become a resource) of their social institutes. Certainly, ideologies, concepts, approaches of subjects can not coincide, that provides a condition of discussionand productive competition. In the same way scales of influence of subjects can and should be various - from the country up to concrete school . As a matter of fact, the subject - the customer of the decision of a problem.
But, as is known, in development object and the subject coincide - it is impossible to develop someone or something, being not developing oneself. Therefore, having chosen reform of developing type (see s.3) , we should pay special attention to strategy of formation and stabilization of the public subject-object of transformations. So, speech should be about creation of the customer - he the executor of transformations also.
Last 8-10 years there were concepts and offers on reforming the educations initiated by the ministry, scientific faculties of universities, the organizations of teachers or simply separate enthusiasts. However nobody attempted upon the decision of a problem of restoration of integrity of education or did not meet other requirements to the subject. All this were partial positions and consequently offers appeared inefficient or simply not realizable. Quite often they were initiated tactical (including political) by momentary reasons. As a matter of fact, there were not realistic attempts to reform the contents of education till now. Sensation of the ripened problem of reforming of the contents, on the one hand, and absence of means of its judgment and the formulation, with another, create an atmosphere of disappointment, skepticism in a society, interest to a radical reform decreases, the preference is more and more given "small (on expenses of intelligence), but to concrete affairs", more and more popular becomes a way ofmodernization, habitual, more clear and consequently accessible ("lets stop talking, it is necessary to do something!"). The false belief that the main thing in reform is its first, administrative-economic part, in parallel becomes stronger, and the second - is facultative, belief preparing to reform one more deadlock - triviality.
That we have allocated and have described a problem, yet does not mean, that the problem really became public and there was a high-grade public subject - the customer and the executor of reform has created, but we hope, that have made a step in the necessary side.
So, the problem of reforming of the contents of education and giving practicalities to it has two sides: in the cultural-historical plan - a problem of restoration of integrity of education ("in big") and in socio-culturalplan - a problem of creation and structurizaton of the public subject-executor of reform. Not defects of school system and its management, and the attitude to them, as to a problem, now sets and characterizes a situation of reforming of the Israeli education.
Till now we do not see not only discussions of this situation, but also interest to discussion. Absence of the attitude was evidently shown the last few years at the various forums, devoted to reform of education . Here is situation ...
We confirm, that any strategy of reforming of education will inevitably fail, if two specified sides of a problem will continue be ignored and substituted by offers of type "I sing, that I see", not constructive references to platitudes ("globalization", "information"), spells "to improve, "strengthen", "give money", advertising of the "advanced" pedagogical methods, etc.
Now it is possible to answer to question in heading of section more precisely: the sense of our Project consists in creating the sample of the resolving of a problem and to show with that an opportunity of radical reforming of the contents of education. Moreover, we believe, that a series of the competing samples resolving this problem in the different ways, on the basis of different ideas should be created, and in this sense our Project - the application for such series. We shall note by the way, that realization of a series of projects will essentially expand opportunities of a choice of individual educational programs for pupils, that will mean transition to the open education.
Strategy of the second part of the educational reform.
Strategy of modernization consists in reproduction innovative schools mentioned above. To carry out a choice of samples, it is necessary to reconstruct outlooks and concepts standing behind them and to analyze them on adequacy to modern Israeli and world realities. Thus there are no guarantees, that the required type of school will be found, as they were created in other conditions and with other purposes.
More realistic variant - to join thinking about education with activity of education by means of project designing (including realization of projects) and all kinds of activity providing it. Required "intermediary" whom is told about in the previous section, is an institute of designing, jumping-off place on which can meet, communicateand productively cooperate the basic participants of reforming (conceptualists, teachers, managers, parents, politicians, scientific, businessmen, etc.) to cooperate the business, public and state structures which have been not constrained by any ideological, party or sectored frameworks. At the same time, the institute of designing is a nutrient medium (club) on which the real public subject can grow up. Realization of any project, including ours, outside of this environment is improbable. .
"The period of ideologyzation" has exhausted the opportunities. Now it is necessary to cooperate the public - a resource of reform and the consumer of its results - not around ideas of reform (as was tried till now), and around centers of concrete design works in regions and cities. We rely upon the initiative of municipalities and business structures.
Here there are many concrete organizational questions which should be discussed separately. But it is necessary to pay attention to two of them already now. It is a question on a realizability of projects and stability of strategy of reforming at change of authority. Ways of the decision are known in general: the realizability is provided due to involving the public in public discussions and decision-making, and stability - by structurization of the same public when in reality there is a public subject of reform and the resource of its authority becomes proportional to a resource of authority. Good service could serve the organization of public designing of new schools (for example, on the Internet), courses of designing, the organization of the open competitions and competent constant public examination of projects and offers on reform, the qualified public discussions under alternative projects, formation of pedagogical community  (the organization around of the periodic professional edition, special public procedure of generation of design groups), attraction of students of the senior rates of pedagogical high schools to all these actions, etc. From the state the legislative decisions directed to legalization of experimental schools ,giving of the special preferential status and the state support to it, accepting of the new doctrine of education (assignment and requirements to the new contents of education, stages, conditions and ways of its regarding, resources, etc.). The analysis and judgment, as projects, as experience of different schools will create a new situation, due to problematization of which it will be possible to make the proved decisions on distribution and updating of experience, correction and the further realization of the doctrine.
Thus, strategy (of the second part of reform) for radical improvement of functionality and quality of our education and its transformation into a prestigious export product consists in creation of institute of designing, development and performance of a series of pilot projects under the reflective control.
What should be the organizational project ofmanagement of these processes - whether a certain operating body will be generated or management becomes network; what (legal, economic) status design groups can have; where and how to find or prepare the staff for them; how to involve a political position which becomes necessary as soon as there will be a game with other managers in occasion of realization of projects; what restrictions need to be imposed on standardization of education to not prevent to processes of change of the contents and working out of the new pedagogical toolkit (it could be necessary to transform process of standardization from discrete to continuous; it could be that the subject of standardizations should be social and economic of school life only, but not substantial aspects, and it could be that subject of standardization become not so much "bagrut", but the competence of the graduate); whether the new school should give a form of social institute to communication with graduates, what and in what forms, it is only a part of the important questions which should be discussed and solved in the further, within the limits of the project designing. However three of them - financial resources of reforming, initial organizational project of reforming, and a certain human quality - a vital position of participants of planned works - we shall consider in brief now in view of their exclusive importance.
About sources of resources.
As it was spoken already, volumes of necessary resources for realization of reform are rather sensitive for the budget of the state. Therefore attraction of resources from side becomes necessity. Where is it possible to look for them?
As always, it is businessmen, their capitals, funds created by them. However not any "rich person" is suitable here. To not spend force for empty search, it is necessary to usethe important distinction entered from J.Shumpeter. He has distinguished two ideal types: the businessman and the entrepreneur.
Distinction concerning to the capital: for the first capital is a gain- the main value and a ultimate goal of business. For the entrepreneur the capital - means of achievement of the purpose under which the public transformations improving quality of a life are understood.
There are known many historical examples of entrepreneur: Edmund Rothschild, Ford, Hammer, Soros, the Hollywood producers during the Big depression,… Their activity changed socio-cultural situation. Certainly, these changes brought him the considerable income, but it again joined as a resource in new cycles of public transformations. The position of the entrepreneur includes a position of the businessman (management of turnover cycles of the capital), but does not reduced to it.
But the names of businessmen-converters were nor kept by history, at the best, we recollect them as about very rich people, only that. The businessman does not begin to invest in public education, fairly believing ("I pay taxes!"), that this is business of the state which is obliged to provide him the prepared people as a resource of his concrete activity: character of his purpose is limited by horizons of his mind, he does not think«for all business». Charity is accessible to the businessman only motives of which does not assume any changes and the more use of its results as a new resource for development of all business activity as it is. Donations work on image of his concrete affairs, within the limits of advertising or lobbying of his individual interest. From here there are rather small volumes of endowed means and the formal control (if it is) for their utilization. No social, cultural programs are present at him, the businessman - the man of the hour, instead of time. Certainly, this activity can lead to any public shifts also, but they are not planned, not supervised, therefore can be negative also. The businessman socially irresponsible.
But the entrepreneur owns means of extraction of new resources from transformations due to that he plans it, initiates, participates in them, that his horizons of mindand the social responsibility are much wider. He thinks not in the days, and decades. He understands, that, putting means in education and furthermore in new education, he prepares a personnel resource for continuation and developments of all activity of enterprise type with which he identifies himself. That by means of this resource he can create new social programs, improving not only life quality, but also bringing new incomes. That investments into social programs exactly get public support and due to this become the most profitable (especially in widen business). They as well are honorable and increase "the social capital" which can be converted in other kinds of the capital. Also that been the holder of social programs, he, as the businessman, - out of competition .
How this reasoning fit to Israeli reality? Very bad: there are a crucial deficiency of entrepreneurs in Israel at surplus of businessmen (frequently fine). Nevertheless, they are. Therefore one of the important tasks of development and realization of reform becomes creation of conditions for attraction to this work of people of type Stef Vertheimer, whose understanding and responsibility it is possible to rely upon. It is necessary to look and abroad, in the Jewish world. They should be thought as a necessary component of the subject - the customer of reform.
About starting organizational project.
For the initial organization of works on reforming it is possible to offer simplified organizational project- position structure of the subject in space of reforming of education (the scheme 3)  . Three areas of space are allocated: А - conceptualization of reform, В - designing of reform, и С - realization. Positions are complex (there could be more positions inside them).
Area А defined by position (MeR), realizing reflection of all works. This position is responsible for the conceptual part of reforming (frames, final purposes, notions, directions, types of strategies, principles of organization) and designing of cultured norms of other positions.
Area B is composed by positions which are carrying out methodological designing of means of thinking and the organization (ideas, schemes, concepts, representations) for other positions, designing (including experimental) curriculums and processes, educational institutions, subject expertizing ofprojects and expertizing of preservations of identity of the contents at transitions from A to B, further in C and back (that is necessary for problematization of the organization of works), researches, the analysis.
The areaС is combined by positions of realization: organizer-manager (including the legislator), a politics, the experimenter and practice of education.
Double arrows symbolize the common communicative field which provides connection of positions. In the set they can be treated as that usually named clubalso. Probably, it would be necessary to build organizational project, starting with club.
In each position many people, collectives can work, specific tasks are solving and the cogitative toolkit is used. However it is not necessary to think, that people are fixed to positions as rigidly, as well as functions. Transitions of any participant through positions and work by their rules - according to a current situation of reforming are possible. Moreover, such transitions are necessary, if each participant (especially, the teacher) wishes to see sense of all work and to be "practical". The main thing is to understand, in what position it is necessary to work at present and to do it. The coordinated results of works are realized due to resources of institutions to which participants belong. Movement along this scheme is "non-linear": returns on the previous stages and correction of their contents are possible, that demands the continuous reflective control (MeR).
Feature of the scheme consists of that participants "enter" into it with their individual professional and personal interests which during works can be transformed due to growth of understanding of the whole and their place in it - a necessary condition of success of this enterprise. It is obvious also, that to one of the frameworks becomes the long-term social-cultural policy (ways of the decision of mentioned above problems). Participants should formulate and offered it to the state - thus the public can try to transform as well the state into the subject of high-grade stable policy, free from party ideologies and political ambitions. It not only is probable, but also it is necessary.
Expansion (addition, detailization of positions, their description) and work under similar schemes, as organizational-activityschemes is not other, as development of the organizational project of reforming of education in parallel with its performance - that is the beginning of realization of reform of education , about purpose of which we told above.
About participants of works.
And here are what concerns to wishes to participants of works... Lets better citate the monolog of G.P.Schedrovitsky to this them:
We have got used somehow after Gegel, that development is good. And why it is good? And what for it is necessary to develop? I live in value of development in the same way as you, and I consider it such that to develop is the best in the world. But it is because I am sportsman in a soul. I have got used to run, and the greatest pleasure I receive, when I win. Therefore I put myself in a difficult situation at first, and then with hard work drag out myself from it. But there are surprised people around: what for he runs all the time? Instead of living easy, normally as all people live, he figures something out all time, runs somewhere..."
In the world-process the crucial factor becomes time. It needs to run faster.
2. "Methodology is the plan of the way which was never passed before." (G.P.Schedrovitsky). back
3. "Contemporary" means "keeping up to date": it is those perspective, which exists to day, though may be can't be visible by naked eye, and tomorrow will show itself in all completeness. In that sense "contemporary" is opposes to "to day's", having no perspective. back
4. It's necessary to distinguish "development of the education systems", whom here is talking about, and the known conception of "the developing education", which should be discussed separately. back
5. For example, standardization of requirements to system and its results, professional standards; distribution of samples of the organization of few "provisional" schools operating in Israel; expansion of the rights and moving of the responsibility for the organization of education on a municipal level; reorganization of institute of preparation of teachers with the purpose of increase of their qualification; applying of the responsibility of the teacher for result; the organization and expansion of the market of educational services; a cancelling of a shameful "kviyut" principle at schools and an obligatory binding of the pupil to concrete school; increase of prestige and the salary of the teacher; activization of parental councils; increase of availability of education for children from socially weak families; change of the order of financing of school: not by the number of classes, but by the number of pupils in view of their social status, a site and so forth, and also contract financing of education through introduction of nominal certificates, etc. back
6. "Practicality" - a sheaf of thinking with activity in a context of history. As such sheaf the concept or the ontological scheme (by their origin) which is used in works on the organization of concrete activity (i.e. as organizational-activity) can serve, for example. Strictly speaking, impractical, that is not caused by thinking, activity is not activity, but behavior, reaction, imitation or something other. Through activity "practicality" is transferred onto knowledge when they become one of tools of construction and functioning of activity. The practical knowledge, as a rule, represents problem or task oriented complex of knowledge of different types (what, what for, for what to do) . back
7. Different things can be understood as the contents. Teachers consider, that it is structure of subjects, or structure of the given subject, or a complex of translating knowledge. For managers of education these are social, financial, administrative aspects. Hereinafter we use system representation of education. Therefore the contents is understood as functions of an education system in a society, processes in system, structures of processes, organizations on which these processes proceed. back
8. Characteristic feature of experimental school can be presence of the mechanism of the development combining educational process with functions of conceptualization of education, designing, analytics, research and methodological support of works. Such experimental schools can become the design centers, "poles" of pedagogical association. back
9. Reforming develops in a reflection above school activity. Above we have shown, that directions and the contents of reform follow from results of analytical study of socio-cultural and cultural-historical situations, and strategy of reforming - from problematization of situations in an education system in a view of directions and the contents of reform. However the same mistake is constantly supposed: on the basis of a state of affairs at school try to determine directions and the contents of reform by direct replacement of the negative phenomena on desirable positive (if the salary and prestige of the teacher low - lets increase; it is uninteresting for children at a lesson, they do not understand anything - lets make a lesson interesting and explain a few times etc. The material on a site http://www.osh.ramat-gan.k12.il/yud4/edu/index1.htm) is indicative in this aspect. Therefore eradication of school disgraces is simply identified with the organization of reforming and its situation. The object of reform and object of discussion do not coincide. It is clear, that any movement of thought, especially, its output to action thus does not occur. Such "discussions" is the "perpetual mobile", working on itself. back
10. In repatriates society
by the name of "professional community" there frequently called administrative
structure, that should show outside the force of the group founded it, or to
carry out functions of trade union. There are known social reasons to it. But we
mean organization (or institute), arising historically for reproduction and
perfection of the certain professional work. Above (section 8.3) we spoke that
subject specialization of teachers and the organization of educational process
"with respect to subjects" complicate substantial interaction and formation of
pedagogical community. As our experience shows, for "to be united" it is not
enough one desire. The institute of designing can become a platform of
interaction, a place of cultivation of pedagogical community (not of trade
Recently the first pedagogical magazine "Parts" began to publish in Israel. The publisher managed to collect the interesting and qualified collective of authors. First numbers contain applications for discussion on themes vital for our education. The magazine can serve one of support of creation of institute of designing if will cope with financial difficulties. back
11. This part of offers taken separately, wonderfully illustrates the memorable formula: "That being determines consciousness ". back
12. It is the scheme of different types of the activity necessary in reforming. On it it is impossible to show social or official positions (the ministry, director, the parent, "partaigenosse" and so forth - but each of them in principle can occupy any position of type-activity). To each type of activity there corresponds the type of thinking. Managing of work in a position means the managing the corresponding type of thinking. One of ways of development - game activity. back
13. For example, in occasion of education there is a new turn arises here. Except of mentioned, there are also constantly proceeding generational processes: "revolt of children against fathers" nobody cancelled. But now it appears in new light. What is the main inheritance we pass to the future generations? Problems, which we could not resolve. This transfer happens in a fabric of the life and provides its continuity. Simultaneously systems of values are transferred through education, and it is named "training". But in fact it is those values on the basis of which we have not found resolution of problems! From here the necessity of revision of the case of transferred values follows, alas, any more ours! But where could we take it and how could we make it, if it is not ours? This question demands revision of the contents of the concept "education" already. Besides here there will be a problem of mutual relations of school with parents - "natural conservatives" - in occasion of new concept of education. Whether the school in "world-process" should follow wishes of parents to teach the same as them (parents) were taught, or to offer something new? back
14. Classical example - history of capture the Palestinian terrorists of the passenger ship "Ackille Lauro" in 1985. Purpose of capture were to free 50 terrorists-arabs from the Israeli prisons. Instead of it there was the international diplomatic scandal which has caused strain of relations between Egypt and the USA and falling of the Italian government - consequences which were planned by nobody. The same about a chain of events, followed destruction WTC in New York: hardly planned by anyone. back
15. Here a
question usually arises on a role and a place of the state. Situations in
education at us and in Russia are rather similar. Here that notices in this
"... it is impossible to carry out reform, modernization, experiment, by not including as the subject of reform, modernization, experiment, of citizens, a society, professional and even student's community. It is necessary to create mechanisms of public reforming of an education system. Here it is your work, misters officials. Not to be engaged in modernization - it's not the business of officials, and to create conditions for formation and formulations of civil educational needs, to stimulate creation of a plenty of public institutes which can manage education. In these unions, associations, associations, trustee and school councils, public educational networks, professional, parental, business-communities is formed a basis of changes in education."
Other words, it is business of the state - to assist to create the organizations similar to those that are presented onpic.3. Nevertheless, the care of the Ministry of Finance of education is reduced still to a finding of compromises with on a regular basis striking teachers, today's activity Ministry of Education and Ministry of Absorption (regarding support of educational establishments) reminds more charity, than the organization of education in the specified sense. And understanding of education as major tool of modern socio-cultural policy (increase of social and professional mobility of the population, an increment of a mental potential, the solution of ethnic and religious tensions) are the "supreme algebra" inaccessible to "politicians" in masks of managers , sitting at the Cabinet. Besides if such policy would be developed, there is an open question on strategy of its realization: The state is inclined to operate totally - at once and to capture all (a typical example - stating of the status of "cities of development"), instead of to follow Popper's minimizing risks and increasing quality of result local strategy, - because of instability of political process and problematical character of continuity of the accepted decisions after the termination of the next cadence. Thus, willy-nilly it is necessary to consider an opportunity of the very existence of education within the limits of today's state and a political system. back
individualization - process during which the person studies to build own picture
of the world and to determine his place in it. Having a picture, I can set the
prospect, I can put purposes to myself. In a picture, certainly, there should be
places for other people and their collectives. Forming of relations with them
demands from me acceptance of certain norms of interaction, game rules which
have developed, it is socialization. At the same time, during individualization
there are developing conceptions about conditionality of these norms, about
their binding to a concrete place, time, a task, so, about borders of their
operation, about the opportunities laying beyond the scope of it, and about
tools of an exit from borders for setting
and development of new spaces of thinking and activity.
These tools - intellectual functions (рис.2).
And the greatest, that the teacher can make in an individualization, - to assist
the pupil to master and train these tools, creating for him situations of
necessity of development. Unlike subject knowledge, intellectual functions
accustom not theoretically, and in alive mental activity, that demands
absolutely other organization of educational process. During an
individualization-socialization cooperating persons become "parts" of activity
and of each other thinking.
Symptoms of absence of prospect and the purposes are diagnosed by psychiatrists as depression - "disease" very widespread in Israel. back
17. In the modern world the sphere of action of Adam Smith's "invisible hand" is steadily compressed, it is judged by many world economic and political authorities. It is interesting to note, that the essence all of criticism of capitalism amplifying in last years is reduced just to opposition of individualism (with its limited social outlook and the responsibility) and "publicness" (understanding of the public role and destination) agents of capitalism. The first is personified in a figure of the businessman, the second - in a figure of the entrepreneur back
18. In the Foreword to " the Jewish state " Theodore Herzl speaks about such approach, opposing it to utopian approach drawing the future as already came to being by not known what way: "... In the project offered by me, consists in effect the petition of precautionary force. I only draw weels and gears for construction of the machine, exclusively in hope that there will be mechanics better than me, which, having relied on my long experience and having taken advantage of the material offered by me, will execute this business better ..", "... I confirm that I believe in an opportunity of realization of my idea even if I will not be able to find its final form ". And further, realizing this belief, plans a way to the Jewish State. back
19. Thus, the educational space can be presented as a first approximation in the form of the three-layer scheme. The basic program constructed on these principles, is now fulfilled in the Center of Children's Technical Creativity "Kastal". As area of practical activities (I-1) electronics is chosen. back
20. In this question the answer to criticism which we often hear contains: where, on what workplaces the child prodigies who have received your education will work? Whether prepared to him destiny of unemployeds? Certainly, prepared, we answer, if to think of the future in scientific spirit - as today. And if try to think it as that of built by graduates of SHE, there are obvious, that workplaces which today are not present, they will create to themselves. back
Interest - concept from area of economy and a pragmatism.
Carry its to a policy
deprives with its valuable and rationalistic bases at once, dooming on use of
means which we have mentioned - the tenders and transactions.
Certainly, political party on concept - always the bearer of incompleteness. One business if it is private interest of some group which are not conformed in any way with whole, only figuring out, that there are " interests of the country ", and appealing to them with the demagogical purposes (the Israeli variant). Absolutely another, when the party expresses the private point of view on how to keep and approve values and principles on which the state and a society is constructed and on which the common consensus (the American variant) is preliminary achieved. back
22. From time to time there are interesting publications in Russian the Internet-periodical press, in one of the last ideas are discussed conformable to ours: "Interesting ideas are connected first of all with bringing in education of such position which earlier theoretically, certainly, been admitted, but practically was not used - I mean co-creativity. Often speak separately about creativity of the teacher and about creativity of children, and seems to me, that now ideas which can be productive, including for development of a society, are connected with creative interaction of children and adults, with children-adults communities". back
23. For example: "One more important circle of ideas which only just start to be embodied in school, - transition from practice of informational education to practice of education in game. What does it mean?. Informational education is constructed not so much on development of thinking, but on training of memory, and game - always assumes activity. Now many schools, where exist interesting collectives, start to work with such things". back
24. Now ideas of designing and club in education develop and are realized by many. One of first was Valery Alexandrovich Proskoornin (STU KhPI). Whence ideas about assignment (senses) of club in a situation of radical change of sights on education arise see Proskoornin's work, conceptually close to us "Modern guiding lines of higher education: to forestalling management". back
25. By the way, the phenomenon of " Palestinian people " is result of engineering work too. back
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